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成语,谚语,典故,歇后语的英语翻译

来源:极品文学网   时间: 2019-05-17

篇一:英语典故谚语的来源

1 英语典故谚语的来源

英语谚语是富于色彩的语言形式,一般具有生动形象、喻义明显、富于哲理的语言特征。在一定程度上,英语谚语反映了英语民族的文化特点。在英语语言中,许多谚语来来源于古典文学作品,更准确地说,有如下几种来源:圣经、希腊神话、伊索寓言以及文学巨匠的作品。英语国家的许多谚语都最早记录在这些古典文学作品当中,对于英语国家的文化有着深刻的影响,这些来自英语典故的谚语的汉语翻译既要能较完整地表达其在原典故中的寓意,又要能为广大的中国读者所接受。

2 英语典故谚语的翻译方法

翻译英语典故谚语时,仅仅以语言之间词汇的同义性(等价性)为前提,寻求对等的表现是不够的,译者应该首先正确阅读该典故中所包含的寓意,再采用正确的翻译方法。笔者认为,英语典故谚语的汉译大体可以采用直译法、直译加注释法和意译法。

2.1 直译法

人们在长期的生活积累中,对自然界的现象、人生的经验和真理,都有许多共同的认识和感受。在古典文学作品里反映了这些方面的共同性,并以谚语的方式流传下来。这些英语谚语一般喻义清新,形象逼真,若按其字面直译其意,就能表达出原文的喻义来,则可直译。这样做既能准确把握原谚语在其典故中的寓意,且又可较完整地保存原文的表达方式,一举两得,请看下面的译例:

One swallow doesn’t make a summer.一燕不成夏。出自《伊索寓言》。

An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.以眼还眼,以牙还牙。出自《圣经》。Every heart has its own ache.每颗心都有其痛处。出自《圣经》;

Love your neighbor as yourself.爱邻如爱己。出自《圣经》。

Brevity is the soul of wit.简洁是智慧的灵魂。出自《哈姆雷特》。

Easy come, easy go.来容易,去也容易。出自莎士比亚剧本。

Appearance is deceiving.外貌是不可靠的。出自伊索寓言《老鼠与狮子》。

在译文条件许可时,直译法使译文既保持原文的内容又保持原文的形式特别是保持原文的比喻、形象和民族地方色彩等。如在第一例谚语中One swallow对应“一燕”,而doesn’t make a summer直译成汉语就是“不能构成夏天”与“不成夏”有异曲同工之妙。在第二例中,An eye和a tooth分别直译成了“眼”和“牙”,并且译文在句式上和原文也保持了一致,读起来朗朗上口。这样一来,汉语译文和原谚语在形式上基本保持了一致,并且完整地保留了谚语在原典故中的寓意,读者在读译文时也能明确当中所包含的寓意。因此,直译法成为许多译者翻译谚语的首选方法。

但是在翻译英语典故谚语时,大多数谚语都包含了特定的文化背景和内涵,直译法并不能总是正确表现原谚语的意思,这样译者需尝试其他译法。

2.2 直译加注释法

即直接翻译不能完全表现原谚语的意思,可用直译加注释的方法来处理,此法可使要表达之意一目了然。在有些英语谚语中,常常涉及一些典故专有的人名和地名,虽然这些谚语在寓意和表达上都简洁明了,但是在汉译时须对典故中的专有的地名和人名进行注解,不然译文读后有不知所云之感。如:See Naples and die.若直译成“看了那不勒斯,就可以死了”,读者不禁会问“那不勒斯”是什么?若在译文后加注解:“那不勒斯,意大利南部港市,以其奇美的风景而著称”,那么其寓意就一目了然了。同样,在下面这个谚语中:I am as poor as Job.若翻译成“我和约伯一样穷”,读者不禁会问约伯是谁?也有人翻译成“一贫如洗”就了事了,虽然对应了一个汉语的四字成语,但是却失去了原谚语的文化内涵,若在其后加注:“约伯是《圣经》中以忍耐贫穷而著称的圣徒”,这样一来,译注既使译者解决了“Job”该怎么译,该不该译的难题,又使译文在形式上保留一个汉字成语而寓意鲜明。笔者认为,直译加注法

在很大程度上能使译者避免在理解上对原文“生剥活吞”,又能使读者在更准确更深刻地把握谚语寓意的同时对西方文化有更多的了解。

2.3 意译法

由于英语语言习惯和文化背景方面和其相对的汉语谚语之间存在着某些差异,所以可采取意译法来进行英语典故谚语汉译。但在英语典故中有些英语谚语相对汉语谚语而言,虽然它们的喻义相互吻合,而且表达方式也很相似,但是所比喻的事物并不一样。在汉译这些英语谚语时,常常只能采取只保留原文内容,不保留原文形式的翻译方法,即在一种语言里可找到形象不同但意义十分接近的谚语来翻译另一种语言里的谚语,即意译法。如:It’s all Greek to me.一窍不通。但是,在这类谚语的翻译中,加上注解更有利于正确传达谚语中所体现的文化内涵和深刻寓意。希腊语是非常难学的,在了解了这一事实后,就不难理解该谚语的含义了。再举一例:A whited sepulcher“sepulcher”指的是“坟墓,冢(石凿和石切的)”,而“sepulcher”的修饰语是“whited”,直译就是“涂白了的坟墓”,而我们根据常识可以得知,坟墓涂得再白也只是坟墓而已,这个俗语意指的是“伪善者”或“假道学”(语出《圣经.马太福音》),所以在该谚语的汉译过程中,原文形式的保留已经不是首要考虑的问题了,寓意的正确译读更为重要。

同样,在掌握了“Naples那不勒斯”“Job约伯”在典故和圣经中的含义之后,2.2中的两个谚语也可以分别译成“不到黄河心不死/不到长城非好汉”和“一贫如洗”。在英语中,这类含典故又可以意译的谚语举不胜举,现略举一二。

A Judas kiss.口蜜腹剑(犹大,《圣经》中背叛耶酥的人);

Tower of Babel.空中楼阁(巴别塔,《圣经》中人类试图建造的通天的塔);

意译法的特点是简洁易懂,读者一下子就能抓住内涵,阅读起来省事,这样可使译文既喻义明显,又含而不露,且可再现原文所具有的语言效果,容易达意。英语典故谚语多来自《圣经》和希腊罗马神话,这些习语结构简单,意义深远,往往是不能单从字面意义去理解和翻译的,如Achilles'heel(唯一致命弱点)、meet one's waterloo(一败涂地)、Penelope's web(永远完不成的工作)、a Pandora's box(潘多拉之盒灾难、麻烦、祸害的根源)等。

2.4 多种译法相结合武汉三甲癫痫医院p>

在典故英语的汉译过程中,由于该类谚语的特殊性,为了更好地译出该谚语在典故中所包含的寓意,往往不能局限于某一种译法,应该采取多译法相结合的方法。如:Between the devil and the deep sea出自《圣经》

若直译成“在魔鬼与深海之间”,原谚语所要表达的寓意得到了完整的诠释,并且在句式上也保持了一致。但是,在汉语中也有有着相同的意义,相同的色彩,相同或相似的形象,并且其民族色彩又不十分浓厚的谚语与该谚语相对应,因而在可用汉语对等的成语或谚语来翻译相应的成语和谚语。所以该谚语可译作“进退两难”或“进退维谷”。这样以来,即保留了原谚语的寓意,又符合汉语的语言表达形式。在采用直译和意译相结合的翻译方法时,既保留了原来的语言涵,但是又赋予了汉语的某些东西。

3 英语典故谚语应注意的问题

第一,正确把握典故的寓意,切忌望文生义。譬如,在It’s all Greek to me. 这一谚语中,就不能译作“对我来说全是希腊语”。

第二,应当注意英语典故谚语的民族性,不能以带有民族特色的专有名词来翻译带有英语国家民族特色的名词,如blow hot and cold(朝三暮四)若译作“朝秦暮楚”的话就失去了原谚语的异国风味。

第三,英语典故谚语在汉译过程中,还应当注意译文的大众性和口语化,如wash one’s hands of a thing译作“洗手不干”比“金盆洗手”更能被大众所理解和接受。

总之,在翻译过程中,应注意典故翻译的可读性和可接受性。因此,在翻译时,译者须

首先细读该谚语,准确把握其在原典故中所表达的寓意和道理,再运用汉语的表现手段,再现典故英语谚语的丰富内涵和语言风格。

篇二:常用汉英成语、谚语、古语翻译

百闻不如一见

爱乌及乌

本未倒置

改邪归正

不入虎穴,焉得虎子

得寸进尺

吃一堑长一智

骄兵必败

患难与共 Seeing is believing. Love me,love my dog. put the cart before the horse mend one’s ways Nothing venture,nothing have. Give him an inch and he’ll take an ell. A fall into the pit,a gain in your wit. Prides goes before a fall. share weal and woe

既往不咎

光明正大

孤注一掷

画蛇添足

见风使舵

良好的开端,成功的一半

空中楼阁

对牛弹琴

破釜沉舟

势均力敌

旁观者清

美中不足之处

转弯抹角

情人眼里出西施

入乡随俗

黔驴技穷

如履薄冰

熟能生巧

水涨船高

巧妇难为无米之炊

时不我待

条条大路通罗马

新官上任三把火

未雨绸缪

小题大做

五十步笑百步

无风不起浪

胸有成竹

英雄所见略同

以其人之道还治其人之身

天助自助者

欲速不达

雨后春笋

有志者事竟成

有钱能使鬼推磨 Let bygones be bygones. be fair and square put all one’s eggs in one basket paint the lily to steer according to the wind A good beginning is half the battle. a castle in the air cast pearls before swine burn one’s boat diamond ut diamond;Greek meet Greek The onlooker sees most of the game. a fly in the ointment beat around the bush Beauty is in the eyes of the beholder. When in Rome,do as the Romans do. be at wit’s end be on thin ices Practice makes perfect When the river rises,the boat floats high. One can’t make brick without straw. Time and tide wait for no man. All roads lead to Rome. New brooms sweep clean. provide for a rainy day make a mountain out of a molehill The pot calls the kettle black. There is no smoke without fire. have a card up one’s sleeve Great minds think alike. pay sb. Back in his own coin Heaven helps those who help themselves. More haste,less speed. to spring up like mushrooms Where there is a will,there is a way. Money talks.

有其父必有其子

鹬蚌相争,渔人得利

左右为难

作茧自缚,玩火自焚

覆水难收

胜者为王

事与愿违

趁热打铁

星星之火,可以燎原Like fa武汉癫痫治疗手术费用ther,like son. Two dogs fight for a bone,and a third runs away with it. be in a dilemma fry in one’s own grease;stew in one’s own juice Don’t cry over spilled milk. Might makes right. The road to hell is paved with good intentions. Strike while the iron is hot. A single spark can start a prairie fire.

闪光的并不都是黄金

冰冻三尺,非一日之寒

三思而后行

少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲

物以类聚,人以群分

人无远虑,必有近忧

礼尚往来

天网恢恢,疏而不漏

有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎

以牙还牙

人靠衣装,佛靠金装

江山易改,本性难移

不要打草惊蛇

谋事在人,成事在天

笨鸟先飞

有失才有得

路漫漫其修远兮,

吾将上下而求索。

桃李不言,下自成蹊

会当凌绝顶,一览众山小

国家兴亡,匹夫有责

人之初,性本善

人生自古谁无死,

留取丹心照汗青。

己所不欲,勿施于人

一见钟情

学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆。

子曰:三人行,必有我师焉:

择其善者而从之,其不善者

而改之。 All is not gold that glitters. Rome was not built in a day. Look before you leap. Lazy youth,lousy age. Birds of a feather gather together. He who gives no thought to the future is sure to be beset by worries at hand. Courtesy calls for reciprocity. Justice has a long arm. Isn’t it a delight when friends come from afar? eye for eye,tooth for tooth Fine feathers make fine birds. You can’t make crab walk straight. Let the sleeping dog lie. Man proposes,God disposes. The early bird catches the worm. You can’t make an omelette without breaking eggs. My way ahead is long;I see no ending;yet high and low I’ll Search with my will unbending. Peaches and plums do not have to talk,the world beats a path of them. When reaching the great peak of Mount Tai,we hold all mountains in a single glance. Rise and fall of a nation rests with every one of its citizens. Every child born has innate goodness. Since the dawn of time every one will die,let the history Books note my death with loyalty at heart. What you do not wish upon yourself,extend not to others. love at the first sight To study and not think is a waste.To think and not study is dangerous. Confucius said:”When three men are walking together, there is one who can be my teacher.I pick out people’s Good and follow it.When I see their bad points,I correct them

in myself.

海内存知己,天涯若比邻 If you have a friend afar who knows your heart,distance can

not keep you two apart.

君子之交淡如水 The friendship between gentlemen is as pure as crystal. 路遥知马力,日久见人心。Time will tell.

柳暗花明又一村 Every cloud has a silver lining.

每逢佳节倍思亲 On festive occasions one thinks more than ever of one’s

loved ones far away.

其身正,不令而行。If the ruler acts properly,the folks would obey him without 前事不忘,后事之师

取之于民,用之于民。

人人为我,我为人人。

人心所向,大势所趋。

天无绝人之路

韬光养晦

天下为公

万事俱备,只欠东风。

心有灵犀一点通

欲穷千里目,更上一层楼。

只可意会,不可言传

居安思危

事实胜于雄辩

言多必失

一言既出,驷长沙癫痫的最佳治疗时间马难追。

青出于蓝而胜于蓝

大器晚成

因小失大

自食其恶果

大智若愚

留得青山在,不怕没柴烧。

车到山前必有路

二人同心,可以断金。

敏而好学,不耻下问。

顺天者昌,逆天者亡。

天生我才必有用

学如逆水行舟,不进则退

玉不琢,不成器。

人不学,不知义。

being ordered to. Past experience,if not forgotten,is a guide for the future. From the people,for the people. All for one and one for all. Accord with public will and the general trend of events. Heaven never cuts off a man’s means. hide one’s capacities and bide one’s time All under heaven are equal. All is ready except for what is crucial. Hearts which have a common beat are linked. For a grander sight,climb to a greater height. That can only be sensed and cannot be explained in words. In time of peace prepare for war. Facts speak louder than words. The tongue cuts the throat. A word spoken is past recalling. The pupil outdoes the master. Late fruit keeps well. Penny wise and pound foolish. As you make the bed,so you must lie in it. He knows most who speaks least. The shepherd would rather lose the wool than the sheep. Don’t trouble trouble until trouble troubles you. If two people are of the same mind,their sharpness can cut through metal. Quick-minded and eager to learn,he is never ashamed to consult his inferiors. Those who follow the Heaven’s law will survive;those who go against it will perish. Heaven has endowed me with talents for eventual use. Learning is like rowing upstreama:not to advance is to drop back. As a jade without chiseling will not become a useful object, A man without learning will not know the Way.

篇三:翻译用成语谚语

一些重要谚语、成语翻译

1.

2.

3.

4.

5. 机不可失,失不在来 Opportunity knocks once 事实胜于雄辩 Actions speak louder than words 活到老学到老 It is never too old to learn 千里之行始于足下A thousand li journey begins /starts with the first step 人不可貌相,海水不可斗量A man cant be judged by his appearance, nor can the sea water be measured by bucket.

6. 宾至如归 feel at home或homelike

7. 并驾齐驱 keep pace with/keep up with

8. 默默无闻 be unknown to the public/remain unknown/nameless

9. 百读不厌. Be worth reading again and again

10. 并非一日之功 sth be not the work of a single day/sth be not made in a single day

11. 勤能补拙 hard work can make up for intelligence

11. 留恋往返 want to stay longer/not want to leave so soon

12. 获益非浅 benefit a lot from/by sth

13. 理所当然 Its only right and natural that/It goes with saying that

14. 略胜一筹 slightly superior to/better than

15. 满载而归 back home /return with fruitful results/with load honors

16. 梦寐以求 dream of sth /long for sth day and night

17. 名列前茅 be second to none/come out in front /leave all the others behind

18. 无以伦比 beyond comparison /incomparable/unique

19. 迫不及待 cant w癫痫病治疗方法ait to do /too impatient to wait/impatiently

20. 全力以赴 spare no efforts to do/devote oneself to

21. 三心二意 change one's mind constantlybe of(have) two minds about sth

22. 光阴似箭Time doesnt wait for us/How time flies/Time and tide wait for no man

23. 熟能生巧 Practice makes perfect

24. 鼠目寸光 short-sighted/near-sighted

26. 置若罔闻 turn a deaf ear to sth /take no notice of

27. 喜出望外 be wild with joy

28. 爱不释手 can't bear /stand putting it down (leaving it aside)

29. 不厌其烦 be patient in doing sth/do sth with great patience

30. 碍手碍脚 be /get /stand in the way

31. 安然无恙 without accident/safe and sound

32. 昂首阔步 in high spirits march forward

33. 半途而废drop out/give up halfway

34. 奔走相告run around/about spreading the news/spread news far and wide

35. 必由之路 the inevitable / the only way to sth

36. 标新立异 seek to be different/strive to be unique

37. 别出心裁 create new styles

38. 别开生面 start sth new

39. 不出所料just as expected/within expectation

40. 不合适宜out of date/fashion

41. 不慌不忙calmly/unhurriedly

42. 不假思索without hesitation

43. 不可估量immeasurable /beyond measure

44. 不可思议unbelievable/unimaginable/beyond belief

45. 不可救药incurable/beyond cure

46. 不容质疑 there is no doubt that/ It goes without saying that

47. 不失时机seize every opportunity to do sth/not lose/ miss the chance

48. 环顾四周look about/around

49. 情不自禁/不由自主can't help doing/but do

50. 车水马龙 人山人海be crowded with people and vehicles/heavy traffic/a sea of people

51. 出乎意料to ones surprise/out of ones expectation/unexpectedly

52. 全心全意/诚心诚意heart and soul/from the bottom of ones heart

53. 持之以恒persevere in doing/stick to doing/insist on/persist in doing

54 出人头地.get ahead/make one's way

55. 驰名中外be famous at home and abroad

56. 首屈一指/出类拔萃be second to none/get ahead of all the others/ outstanding/remarkable/stand out

57. 吹毛求疵find fault with sb

58. 从容不迫do sth with great ease/unhurriedly/ calmly

59. 错综复杂complicated/complex

60. 引人注目catch ones eye/attract ones attention/noticeable。

61. 依依不舍be reluctant to part/cant bear to part / attractive/fascinating /tempting

62. 坐失良机miss golden chance

63. 有目共睹It is clear to all that/obviously seen

64. 杂乱无章in a mess/out of order/in disorder

65. 置之度外with no thought for/no care about sth

66. 专心致志be absorbed in/concentrate on/devote to

67. 心不在焉absent-minded/inattentive

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